URLs and filenames
URLs should be short, memorable, easy to type, and well-structured.
Your control over your URL may be limited, but you should do what you can
with the pieces you can control.
In the vast majority of cases, everything a user can reach on your site
should have a distinct URL that a user can bookmark and use later to
reach that same location.
When creating URLs, use dashes to separate words, omit articles
(a/an/the), use the stems of verbs (
/make-thing/ rather than
/making-thing/), and avoid extraneous terms.
Domains should reflect the user’s needs and not those of the
organization. If your department is several layers deep in terms of
bureaucratic structure, it’s unlikely that this is important to users,
and there is likely minimal cost associated with using a more shallow
It’s not necessary to have
www. at the start of a domain. This is a
holdover from the early internet. Any domain that has a
should also work if that level is omitted.
Domains should not be more than three levels deep in most cases:
18f.gsa.gov is fine, but
content-guide.guides.18f.gsa.gov would not
be. It’s rare that more than four levels is justifiable.
At the same time, it’s not necessary to have a two-level domain for
Domain names should be short, using abbreviations unless those are
likely to be meaningless to users.
If a domain level has more than one word, you should strongly consider
separating the words with dashes to make sure users read them the way
you intend. If 18F had a project called EARS that for some reason needed
a two-level domain, that domain should be
18f-ears.gov and not
ears.18f.gov would probably be the ideal).
Domains are case-insensitive. They should be written as lowercase.
Again, the shorter the better, but long paths are more excusable than
Paths are typically understood as hierarchies that become increasingly
/content-guide/urls-and-filenames/ reflects that
urls-and-filenames is part of content-guide. If this were a much larger
guide, it’s possible that it could be divided further, for example
Each level of a path should make it possible to find the content beneath
- The content at the root level should reflect that
/content-guide/ should make it easy to find
Conversely, the user should be able to remove a level from the path and
end up at the parent of the original content.
Paths should be designed to be sensible for the user, not to reflect
internal technical or bureaucratic structure. For example, filename
.php should be avoided as they reflect the internal
technology used on the server (and will not reflect even that if the
site later changes to a different technology).
When separating words in a path, use hyphens. Hyphens are commonly
understood by search engines to indicate word breaks (whereas other
separators, like underscores, are not).
Paths are case-sensitive. They should be lowercase, regardless of what
they contain, as uppercase letters make them more difficult to type (and
- Starting point:
www is unnecessary and omitting it makes the URL easier to type.
Very slight improvement:
Rationale: Hyphens make the URL easier to read. The same would
be true for the other levels of the domain, but we’re assuming you
don’t have control over those in these examples.
Rationale: The user doesn’t need the URL to reflect that the
service belongs to the Department of Long Names.
Rationale: This is shorter and easier to type. However, it
relies on users thinking of the service by that abbreviation.
Rationale: If the users aren’t familiar with that abbreviation,
a shorter description of what the service does is better to have as
the lowest level of the domain.
- Starting point:
Rationale: Assuming that creation is the most likely action
users will want to take, make it the default and strip the
requirement for the query string.
Rationale: The default page should be delivered automatically,
making the inclusion of
index.php unnecessary. Also, hide the
technical details (
Rationale: Users don’t need to know the technical setup of
Rationale: Words should be separated with hyphens.
Rationale: As above, if the users are familiar with the
abbreviation, use it to make the path shorter.
Rationale: As above, if they aren’t familiar with the
abbreviation, use a shorter description of what the server does.
- Starting point:
Rationale: This combines the suggestions from the previous
Rationale: This is reasonable if the Department of Long Names
has only a couple of services that might be popular enough to
warrant their own subdomains, particularly if they don’t necessarily
fit cleanly into other content and stand alone.
Rationale: This is reasonable if the Long Name Creation Service is
one of many related services that the Department of Long Names provides.
Users constantly bookmark and share web pages, making the maintenance of
permanent and long-lasting URLs an important piece of content management.
Broken links obscure the internet landscape.
URLs should never stop working.
This is not as technically challenging as it sounds. If the domain — the
high-level domain, not subdomains — is lost, the URLs will be lost, but
otherwise it’s entirely possible to keep them working. Planning for them
to continue working is the first step in any process that involves new
Whenever possible, maintain original URLs.
In all other cases, set up a redirect for outdated URLs and links;
this is almost always a painless task for web managers. There are a variety
of ways to accomplish this, some of them requiring more
technical work than others. It’s most difficult to accomplish when
moving from URLs that include query parameters, as some early website
systems did. Sensibly-constructed URLs are easier to migrate.
If we changed our name from 18F to 19G, we would change our domain, so
this page would be located at
https://pages.19g.gov/content-guide/urls-and-filenames/. We would keep
18f.gov domain running, but all it would do would redirect
19g.gov. Users who entered the old URL would be
redirected and might not even notice the URL change.
If we decide to eliminate the pages subdomain and put this directly on
18f.gov, we would do essentially the same thing, keeping this
subdomain and adding a rule to redirect to the same path on
If we produce lots and lots of content in the future, it might become
sensible to change our path to reflect this, and we might want to have a
guides level, so that the new URL for this page would be:
this case, we would add a rule that redirects everything starting with
This also means that URLs, and parts of URLs, should not be re-used.
Once we use
/content-guide/ to refer to this guide, we can no longer
decide in future to use
/content-guide/ as the location for something
else, even if we later change the URL for this guide.
Use hyphens to separate words, just as with URLs.
Lowercase is better, because it’s easier to type and to remember.
Use the right extension — PDFs should have
.pdf at the end, JPGs
.jpg at the end, etc.
Shorter is better, but the content should be descriptive to the user,
and it’s better to have long descriptive filenames than short obscure
summary-of-pay-gap-findings.pdf is better than
If the file content is based on a date or time, include that: the 1998
report for an organization should have
1998 in the filename, a
February issue of a magazine should have the year and the month, and a
PDF of a daily newspaper should have year, month, and date. When
including dates, use the
YYYY-MM-DD format, i.e.
Avoid the use of special characters beyond the hyphen and period, unless
absolutely necessary. Do not include spaces (use hyphens in their
Presenting URLs and filenames in text
Whether beginning with the protocol or not, always lowercase URLs in
text. Paths are case-sensitive, however, so their casing must be
In interactive contexts, particularly web pages, URLs (except when used
as examples, as throughout this document) should always be active links.
When they’re active links, do not include the protocol in the link text.
In non-interactive contexts, such as print, the protocol can be omitted,
https:// both work and bring the user to the
There are occasions where URLs should be delimited; use
this. This is not normally necessary in interactive contexts where the
link is clearly defined, but is most often relevant in email, where the
writer may have to guess at what their email program will turn into a
link. This is particularly true when URL contains spaces.
Filenames are case-sensitive, and their case should be preserved when
they are referred to in text; do not capitalize if beginning a sentence
with a filename that begins with a lowercase letter. Filenames may need
to be delimited in the same way as URLs.
Capitalization on a web page:
gsa.gov is the General Services Administration
Capitalization in print:
gsa.gov is the General Services Administration site.
Delimiting an awkward URL in email:
When you get the chance, could you redirect <example.com/spaces in
URLs are bad/> to <example.com/spaces-in-urls-are-bad/>, as
per our guidelines, and make the latter the definitive URL for the
- The protocol. For example
:// is always present.
- The domain. For example
18f.gsa.gov. This is “where on the
internet” the URL is referring to. Also called:
- Optional: the port. A number specifying how to access the
content on this particular domain. Not normally used on
production sites. Follows the domain, separated by a colon, for
- The path: what resource on the domain the URL is referring to.
If omitted, defaults to
/, the “root level” of the domain. Always
starts with a slash, and different levels of resources are separated
by slashes. For example:
/content-guide/ is the path in
- Optional: the query string. Normally contains parameters that
have been submitted to the site, for example with searches.
?q=18f+content+guide is the query string in
- Optional: the fragment. Normally this indicates a specific
section of a page, but can also be used for other things by
#main is the fragment in
The protocol should almost always be
https:// unless you’re forced to
http://. Users entering
http:// as the protocol should be
https://. If at all possible, your URL should not
contain a port. Query strings should also be avoided. Fragments can be
used as a helper for the user, but should not be necessary for the user
to find the relevant content.
It’s important to remember that users of screen readers will often skip from one link to another, skipping the text in between, as a way of skimming for the content they need.
This ultimately means that link text should be understandable independent of the text surrounding it. Avoid ambiguous link text like click here, here, or learn more whenever possible.
For example, instead of:
Click here for more information about our Code of Conduct.
For more information, see the 18F Code of Conduct.
This has an added benefit of improving search results for sighted users.
Screen reader-only text
In some situations, descriptive links may be overly verbose or redundant for
sighted users. Here’s an example from the betaFEC site:
Here the Learn more link is appropriate for sighted users, but it may be confusing to screen reader users. In such situations, it’s possible to add invisible text just for screen reader users. For example, the U.S. Web Design Standards has a special CSS class called
usa-sr-only for this purpose. Using this class, the aforementioned Learn more link might be written in HTML like so:
about candidate and candidate committees
This would keep the link concise for sighted users, while also providing
important context for screen reader users.
If you want to use text intended only for screen readers on your project but
are unfamiliar with CSS, ask your project’s front end developer for help. They
can create a CSS class for you if one doesn’t already exist. Alternatively,
reach out to #g-accessibility or #g-frontend in Slack!